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Peace be on Hussain, and on Ali son of Hussain, and on the children of Hussain, and on the friends of Hussain.
 Ahlul-bait PBUH \ IMAM ALI (Peace be upon him) 

IMAM ALI (Peace be upon him)
The Master of Guardians and the First Imam and Caliph of the Muslims after the Best of Messengers Muhammad (Peace be upon him and his purified progeny)

 HIS HONORABLE LINEAGE 
He is Ali son of Abi Taleb (and his name is ‘Abd Manaf), son of Abd Al Mutallib (and his name is Shaybat Al Hamd), son of Hashem (and his name is ‘Amr), son of ‘Abd Manaf (and his name is Al Mugheera), son of Qusayy, son of Kelaab, son of Murrah, son of Lo’ayy, son of Ghaleb, son of Fohr, son of Malek, son of al Nadr, son of Kinana, son of Khuzayma, son of Modraka, son of Elyaas, son of Modor, son of Nizaar, son of Ma’d, son of ‘Adnan.

 HIS BLESSED BIRTH
He was born on Friday, the 13th of Rajab according to most narrations, in one of the most important seasons. In another narration, it is reported that he was born on Sunday, the 7th of Sha’ban thirty years after the Year of the Elephant and the birth of the Holy Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). He was born 23 years before the Migration (Hijrah) and according to other traditions, it was 25 years before. His birth was in the city Mecca inside the Holy Ka’ba as it is relayed in the references of Ibn As-Sabagh Al Maliki and Murooj Al Dhahab by Mas’oodi and the Al Irshad by Sheikh Al Mufeed, and Al Seerah Al Halabiya by Ali ibn Burhan Al Deen Al Halbi Al Shafi’i.
Al Shafi’i records that the birth of Ali ibn Abi Taleb in the Ka’ba was 30 years after the birth of the Holy Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). Sheikh Al Mufeed reports in his book Al Irshad that, “No one after or before Ali was ever born inside the Holy House of Allah (SWT), as an honor from Allah (SWT) to him and glorification to his great stature.” Al Aloosi also cites in his book Sharh ‘Ayneyat ‘Abd Al Baqi: “The fact that the Ameer (may Allah honor his face) was born inside the Holy Ka’ba is a known fact in this life and is narrated in the books of both sects, the Sunni and the Shi’a.” In that regards, Seyyid Al Hameeri states: “His birth was in the sacred Haram of God and under His protection and inside the House where there is complete servitude, in the white mosque with pure clothes; surely its baby-born is purified and blessed, and the birth was on a night when the negative superstitions of the stars wer nonexistent, and the shining moon became apparent; this phenomenon never happened before except with the son of Lady Amina, Muhammad (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household).”
‘Abd Al Baqi Al ‘Amri extols Ali in his well-known book Al Ayneya, “You are Ali who rose high above greatness, in the core of Mecca in the middle of the Holy House where you were born.” And Ali ibn Abi Taleb (Peace be upon him) said on the day of the Battle of Khaybar, “I am the one whom my mother named me Haydara, a lion of the jungle who is Shadeed Al Qaswara (acting like a tough lion).

 HIS FATHER
His name is ‘Abd Manaf as it is narrated and Abu Taleb is his agnomen. He was named by the eldest of his children. The father of Abu Taleb Abd Manaf is ’Abd Al Mutalleb who stated in his will to Abu Taleb to: “I advise you Oh ‘Abd Manaf to take care of the one who believes in one God after his father.” So he answered: “You have willed to me whose agnomen is Abu Taleb ‘Abd Manaf and he is a man of experience, Oh son of the beloved one!”
Abu Taleb is the biological brother of Abdullah - the father of the Holy Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household), and he is the one who took custody and acted as guardian of the Messenger of God (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). He supported, protected, and defended him and he suffered a lot from the polytheists of Quraish for his position. Abu Taleb prevented them from harming the Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) and was patient in defending him against his enemies and taking care of his matters to the point that the people of Quraish could not dare to approach the Prophet.
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) was not ordered to migrate (Hijrah) until the demise of Abu Taleb. Abu Taleb was a Muslim but he did not announce his Islam and if he did so, he would not have been able to support the Prophet openly. However, he did openly verify the truthfulness of his prophethood in the form of poetic verses he chanted such as, “You have invited me and I knew that you were truthful. You were honest and you were known to be the ‘Ameen’ (trustworthy one) since a long time ago. I have come to recognize that the religion of Muhammad is the best of religions.”
Furthermore, Sheikh As-Sadooq narrates in his book Al Amali that Imam As-Sadeq (Peace be upon him) has said that the first group of worshippers formed was the Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) who used to pray with Ameerul Momineen Ali ibn Abi Taleb (Peace be upon him). One day Abu Taleb and his son Ja’far passed by them so Abu Taleb ordered his son to join his brother in prayer. When the Prophet (Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) felt Ja’far’s presence, he led them in prayer and Abu Taleb departed in a happy state while saying: “Ali and Ja’far are my trusts during the hard and distressful times. By Allah, I will not abandon my support for the Prophet, and no one of honorable origin would desert him. Do not abandon him and support your cousin – the son of my mother and father.”

 HIS MOTHER
Fatima is the daughter of Asad the son of Hashem. She is the first Hashemite woman who married a Hashemite man and she is the mother of the rest of the children of Abu Taleb (Peace be upon him). She was to the Prophet as a mother who raised him and he was very grateful to her kind treatment to him and he used to call her “my mother”. She used to favor him over her own children and she would take care of the Prophet such that he was tidy and well-combed while her own children were not yet uncombed and untidy.
Al Hakim narrates in his book Al Mustadrak that Fatima was at a high level of faith during the time of the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). She hastened to embrace Islam and migrated to Madina. When she passed away, the Holy Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) himself buried her and wrapped her in his own shirt. He dug her grave with his own hands and lay in it and said, “Oh Allah, forgive my mother Fatima bint Asad”, and he pronounced the faith to her (Talqeen) and her grave became more spacious.
When the people observed that, they asked the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household), “We saw you doing something you never did before to anyone.” So the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) replied, “I have dressed her with my shirt so that she wears the clothes of Paradise.” In other narrations he said, “It is protection to her on the Day of Resurrection”, and in another narration he said, “This is to protect her from the earth, I lay in her grave so that Allah makes her grave spacious and so that she is protected from the squeezing of the grave. Surely, she was from the best of people to me after Abu Taleb.”

 HIS LAQAB (TITLE)
According to Ibn Asbagh, his title is Al Murtada, Haider, Ameerul Momineen, الأنزع البطين (Al Anza’ Al Bateen), Al Aslah (the fittest), and الأنزع المحصر الشعر عن مقدم الرأس [Al Anza’ Al Monhaser Al Sha’r ‘an Muqadam al Ra’s; meaning bald and having a belly (according to narrations the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) explains haing a belly from the abundance of knowledge)]. He was also known as the Wasi (guardian) among his devotees and even among his enemies.
One time a young lad from the tribe of Bani Dabba came out on the Day of the Battle of Camel from the army of Lady Ayesha and said: “We are the people of Bani Dabba – the enemies of Ali, the one who is known to be the Wasi (guardian) and the knight of the horses (in battle) during the time of the Prophet. I do not deny the virtues of Ali but I am seeking the vengeance of Ibn ‘Affan the pious one. The Wali is seeking the vengeance of the Wali.”
And another person from Uzd said in the Battle of Camel: This is Ali and he is the Wali whom the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) took as brother on the day of the secret counsel (Najwa).”
Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) used to be called Ya’soob Al Momineen (Target of the Believers) and Ya’soob Al Deen (Target of the Religion). The Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) has said to Ali, “You are the Ya’soob (target) of the religion and money is the Ya’soob (target) of darkness.” And in another narration, the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) said about him, “He is the Ya’soob of the religion, and the leader of the Ghurr al Muhajaleen (those believers whose faces glow from the drops of water from ablution).” Both of these traditions were narrated in the books of Ibn Hanbal in his Masnad and Abu Na’eem in his book Helyat Al Awliyaa. To be “ya’soob” of the believers means to be associated and accompanying him, while to be the ya’soob of money is the nonbeliever who is attached to it.

 HIS KUNYA (NICKNAME)
His nickname is Abal Hasan and Abal Husain. During his lifetime, his son Hasan used to call him “Abal Husain” and Husain would call him “Abal Hasan”. They would call the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) as “their father”. When the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) passed away, they then called Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) “their father”.
His nickname was also Abu Turaab as he was named by the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). It is narrated that the governor of Madina ordered Sahl ibn Sa’d to curse Ali ibn Abi Taleb on the podium. He replied, “What shall I say?” The governor answered, “Say: Aba Turaab”.
Then Sahl ibn Sa’d replied, “By Allah, the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) is the one who named him that.” The governor asked, “And how is that?” Sahl answered, “Ali entered the presence of Fatima and then went out and lay down in the courtyard of the Mosque. The Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) went to visit Fatima and asked her where his cousin (Ali ibn Abi Taleb) is. So she answered, “He is laying down in the Mosque.”
The Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) saw that Ali’s gown had fell off and dust was on his back. So the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household) went on wiping and dusting off the dust from the back of Ali while saying, “Sit up, Oh Aba Turaab!” Sahl remarked, “By Allah, no one named him that name but the Holy Prophet and it was the most dearest name to Ali.”

 ENGRAVING ON HIS RING
In his book Tadhkerat Al-Khawaas, Sibt Al Joozi reports that the engraving on the ring of Ali ibn Abi Taleb (Peace be upon him) was "الله الملك على عبده" (Allah al Malek ‘ala ‘Abdihi). He used to wear the ring on his right hand and that was the case also with his sons Hasan and Husain (Peace be upon them).
It is narrated in the book Sewaan Al Hikma by Ali ibn Zaid Al Bayhaqi that Yahya was a Christian philosopher who would come meet the Commander of the Faithful. One of the workers under Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) wanted to distract the Christian philosopher from meeting the Imam (Peace be upon him). So Yahya wrote a letter complaining to Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) and seeking his protection. Muhammad ibn Hanafiya replied back to him with a letter confirmation indicating the protection by Imam Ali (Peace be upon him). It is witnessed that the signature of the Imam on this letter was "الله الملك على عبده".
Al Kaf’ami also cites in his book Al Mesbah that the engraving of his ring was الملك لله الواحد القهار (Al Mulk Lillah Al Wahed Al Qahaar). It is possible that the Imam (Peace be upon him) had more than one ring with more than one inscription.

 HIS WIVES
His first wife was Fatima Al Zahra, the Master Lady of the universe and the daughter of the Holy Prophet. He did not marry anyone over her except after her demise when he married Umama bint Abi Al ‘Aas ibn Rabee’ ibn Abd Al Uzza ibn Abd Shams and her mother was Zainab daughter of the Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household). Then he married Umm Al Baneen bint Hizam ibn Draam Al Kilabeya and also Layla bint Mas’ood ibn Khaled Al Nahshaleya Al Tamimiya Al Drameya. He then married Asmaa bint ‘Umays Al Kath’ameya who was previously married to Ja’far ibn Abi Taleb who was martyred and then she had married Abu Bakr who passed away. Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) married Umm Habib bint Rabi’a Al Taghlibeya and her name is Al-Sahbaa who was among the captives from the invasion which took place in ‘Ayn Nemr by Khalid ibn Al Waleed. He married Khawla bint Ja’far ibn Qais ibn Muslima Al Hanafiya. He also married Sa’d (or Saeed bin Urwa ibn Mas’ood Al Thaqafeya as well as Maghbaat bint Emre’ Al Qais ibn ‘Adeyy Al Kilabeya.

 HIS CHILDREN
In his book Murooj Al Dhahab, Al Mas’oodi counts the number of the children of Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) to be 25 and Sheikh Al Mufeed in his book Al Irshad counts them to be 27 boys and girls. He cites that there are those among the Shia sect who mention that Lady Fatima had aborted her unborn child named Mohsin (by the Prophet) and this happened after the demise of the Messenger of God and these scholars count the children to be 28.
On the other hand, Ibn Al Atheer cites Al Mohsin to have passed away at a young age and have included among the children of Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) the following: Muhammad Al Awsat, Umm Kulthoom Al Sughra, Bint Al Sughra, and Ramla Al Sughra (total of 33 children)
Sheikh Al Mufeed and Al Mas’oodi confirms that the mother of Al Hasan, Al Husain, Zainab Al Kubra, Zainab Al Sughra (known as Umm Kulthoom) is Fatima Al Batool the Master Lady of the universe - the daughter of the Holy Prophet Peace and prayers be upon him and his purified Household).
The mother of Muhammad Al Awsat is Umama bint Abi Al Aas and this is not mentioned by Al Mufeed or Al Mas’oodi. Al Abbas, Ja’far, Abdullah, and Uthman are the martyrs of Karbala and their mother is Ummal Baneen Al Kilabeya.
Muhammad Al Akbar who is nicknamed as Abi Qasem and known as Ibn Al Hanafeya is the son of Khawla Al Hanafeya.
Abdullah or Ubaidullah and Muhamad Al Asghar are martyrs of Karbala and their mother is Layla bint Mas’ood Al Nahsheela.
The mother of Yahya is Bint ‘Umys; Umar and Ruqayyah are twins whose mother is Umm Habeeb Al Sahbaa bin Rabee’a Al Taghlibeya. Umar lived up to 85 years.
The mother of Umm Hasan and Ramla Al Kubra and Umm Kulthoom Al Sughra is Umm Sa’d bint Urwa ibn Mas’ood Al Thaqafeya. Al Mufeed and Al Mas’oodi cited Umm Hasan and Ramla only as her children and did not describe her as Al Kubra.
Umm Hani Maymoona Zainab Al Sughra are the children of a slavegirl under the mastership of Muhammad ibn Aqeel ibn Abi Taleb and Ramla Al Sughra.


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