Articles \ Did Imam Hussain PBUH in the 10th of Muharam ask to go to Yazeed to pledge of allegiance?
By Sheikh Wesam Albaldawi
Imam Hussain's AS meeting with Omar bin Sa'ad repeatedly before the battle
Imam Hussain AS, his Family, children, and companions in Karbala were under penalty of the siege for six days started from 3rd of Muharam when Omar bin Sa'ad (Allah curse him) reached him and continued until the 10th when the battle of right took place against the wrong.
During this 6 days Imam Hussain AS met Omar bin Sa'ad repeatedly. He AS tried to dissuade him from fighting him, supporting and obeying Obaid-Allah bin Marjanah (May Allah curse him). Ibn Alatheir said: Alhussain and Omar bin Sa'ad have met 3 or 4 times. (1)
Hani bin Thabeit Alhathrami who witnessed killing Imam Hussain AS said: Imam Hussain AS sent Amro bin Qartah Alansari to Omar bin Sa'ad saying, “Come to meet me tonight between the two armies.” Omar came with twenty horsemen, while Imam too went accompanied with the same amount of men. When they reached face to face, Imam told his companions to move far away and Omar too ordered his companions to do so. Both the groups moved away and they started talking to one another until one part of the night passed away. Then they returned back to their armies and no one knew as to what was discussed between them.(2)
In Albihar narration by Alamah Almajlesi (may Allah bless his soul) Imam Hussain was not alone with Omar bin Sa'ad may Allah curse him when he told the meeting details:
Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) sent a messenger to Omar Bin Sa'ad saying:
"I want to have a talk with you, meet me tonight in the land between my camp and yours!"
Omar Bin Sa'ad went out with twenty of his knights. Yet, Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) came also surrounded with the same number of knights. When they met, Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) ordered his companions to stay away and they obeyed him. Only his brother, Al-Abas (peace be upon him) and his son Ali Alakbar (peace be upon him) stayed with him. Then Omar ordered his men to stay away, while keeping with him his son Hafs and his servant. (3)
Historians differ about the topics that were taking place between them
The differences occurred among historians about the topics which addressed by the parties at the meeting. Sunnis all of them agreed on that Imam Hussain AS requested three things from Omar Bin Sa'ad, they are as Altubari said: People talked between them, misgiving with out being sure that Imam Hussain said to Omar Bin Sa'ad: “Accompany me in revolting against Yazeid and leave his ranks.” Omar replied, “My house shall be destroyed (if I do so).” Imam said, “I shall build it (back) for you.” He said, “My properties shall be confiscated”, and Imam said," I shall give you better than that from my property in Heijaz.” But Omar was not pleased by it. Altubari then confirmed that people started to talk about it with out being sure. (4)
Ibn Katheer added more details on that saying (some of them said: But even he asked weather they go together to Yazeed, or he let him get back to Heijaz, or let him go to fight Turks in some Islamic border line.) (5)
Ibn Atheer also narrated what people said in a different way when he said: a few said that he even said to him chose to me one of three. To get back t where I came from, or I put my hands on Yazeed hand and discuss the matters between me and him, or take me to any Islamic border line you like and live there as one of them (foreigners). (6)
In the other hand Albari asserted the issuance of this demands from Imam Hussain AS where he did narrate it in the form of ' People said' or ' people talked' etc as other did. But he narrated it in the following way: Omar bin Sa'ad Came to him and said: O Abu Abdullah! Where are you heading to? He AS replied: I am heading towards people who cheated me with their letters and nothing could stop the destiny (Fate). And I am asking you for one of three: to let me get back where I came from, to leave me on my own way to the foreigners to fight them until death, or to go to Yazeed and put my hand on his hand. (7)
Their stories are almost unanimous in that Imam Hussain AS requested for 3 demands which are:
1. To get back to Almadina.
2. To go or to take him to an Islamic border line so he could fight the infidels to death or something like that.
3. To let him go to Yazeed and put his hands on his hands and pledge allegiance to Yazeed or agrees with him on something.
The most important question here is: does it make sense when Imam Hussain AS asking Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) to go together to Yazeed to be under his control and mercy? Or, to take him to one of the Islamic border line to fight Turks? Or to let him live as one of them (the Turks) and live as one of them.
Is it possible to the Imam AS to beg them to let him return back? Because he PBUH discovered when he was besieged that people of Iraq deceived and bulled his leg until he started to recite du'a (prayer) saying: O our Allah! The people of Iraq bulled my leg and cheated me and they did to my brother what they did) (8)-(9)?
Or these statements founded by studied plane to destroy the revolution of Imam Hussain AS infront of the media? We will spot light on these matters next...
The condition which mentioned earlier is in the interest of Omar bin Sa'ad with out Imam Hussain AS
I've extrapolated the available texts which mentioned the meeting of Imam Hussain AS with Omar Bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) and I found that the Sunni sources which ware relied on unanimous in the meeting did not include only two persons; they are both Imam Hussain AS and Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) and everyone else moved a side so they don’t hear their voices or speech. Which means one of the two persons is the one who made this false statement.
But which one of the two persons interest to verify these three conditions?
With a little ponder and contemplation we could find that Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) is the only beneficiary of any of this conditions. Because one of Omar Bin Sa'ad characters is that he loves high positions (to be in charge). As Ibn Katheer said about him (this Omar Bin Sa'ad loves leadership. He kept working on it until he became the commander of the army division which killed Hussain bin Ali (RA) (10).
He was so greedy until he accepted to kill the chief of youth of heaven for Alrai governing. Achieve one of those three conditions was enough for his arrival to his wishes with out the need to bother him self to entering into a battle which might be not for his good. Also he would like to remove this obstacle which stands between him and governing of Alrai peacefully and as fast as possible.
With regard to Imam Hussein PBUH acceptance to pledge of allegiance to Yazeed, to go to him, or to run away to the border lines to fight there until he get killed all of this means frank waive, obvious disrespect and humiliation with out a doubt. All of these false conditions harm and insulting the character of Imam Hussain, his revolution and slogans which he calling for since he left Mecca until his martyrdom PBUH.
For this reason it is not for the interest of Imam Hussain AS to put this false condition on him and the sole beneficiary of this false conditions is Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) only.
People talked about the conditions without knowing it with out surety
The earlier texts which was mentioned confirms that case of surrender Imam Hussain AS to Yazeed (May Allah curse him) is just a rumor released by Umayyad government between people. Similar to other rumors which was released between people to deformation the shinning sides of Imam Hussain revolution and those who made it.
The evidence for it was merely rumored is what Altubari said earlier:
People talked between them, misgiving with out being sure that Imam Hussain said to Omar Bin Sa'ad: “Accompany me in revolting against Yazeid and leave his ranks.” Omar replied, “My house shall be destroyed (if I do so).” Imam said, “I shall build it (back) for you.” He said, “My properties shall be confiscated”, and Imam said," I shall give you better than that from my property in Heijaz.” But Omar was not pleased by it. The he said: People talked about it and popularized between them with out hearing or knowing it. (11) It is an explicit text stated that people are the once who talked and not Imam Hussain AS or one of his army. Also peopled talked with no knowledge or certainty but it came from a misgiving which they imagined. The source of this rumor then is the people who were in the hostile army and their evidence as we see is misgiving which can't take the place of the truth.
Far be him, Imam Hussain to leave his harem and children then go to Yazeed by himself
The texts which narrated this big fabrication especially the text which Altubari narrated when he said: Accompany me in revolting against Yazeid and leave his ranks, Omar replied, “My house shall be destroyed (if I do so).” Imam said, “I shall build it (back) for you...” they tried to show Imam Hussain AS was a careless person and he cared for his safety only, far be him from all this lies. Imam Hussain AS was not alone in Karbala to say such thing to Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) but he was with his brothers, sisters, wives, sons and his companions. Then how could Imam Hussain AS to leave all of them? How could he ignore them and did not think of their safety? And how could he run away to Yazeed and leave everyone accompanied by him under risk of harm, abuse and persecution?
All this things are impossible logically with out the need to any proof. Because the practical history of Imam Hussain AS weather before or after 10th of Muharam confirms with no doubts that he the most caring person about his family, harem, companions, and their safety. The evidences on this truth are so many and well known which don’t need to proof.
So this was another false side among the false sides of this Umayyad fabrication.
If Imam Hussain AS wanted to pledge of allegiance to Yazeed he could do it in Almadina
Add to that, if Imam Hussain AS wanted to pledge of allegiance to Yazeed bin Muaweiah (May Allah curse him) he wouldn’t bother him self by leaving Almadina and he could pledge of allegiance at the first day. At that time he wouldn’t only prevent being killed and his family but also enjoy a high status and specialties from Yazeed and Umayyad. Giving pledges of allegiance to Yazeed may Allah curse him means to give him full legitimacy rights. And this allegiance will lead to all Bani-Hashim (his clan) to pledge of allegiance to Yazeed following Imam Hussain PBUH, then Quraish will follow Bani-Hashim and then All people of Almadina following Quraish. That’s why such allegiance holding such importance, Yazeed and Umayyad were ready to give everything they have to have it if there is any way.
A witness companied the Imam PBUH from Almadina to Karbala denying these conditions
Uqba bin Sam'an was a slave owned by Alrabab the wife of Imam Hussain AS accompanied Imam Hussain AS since he left his house in Almadina until the end of the battle. After the tragedy of Ashora (10th Muharam) he was captured and token to Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) and he intended to kill him but he gave a pardon that he is a slave and has no other way than attending with Alrabab AS so Omar bin Sa'ad released him. Altubari said: Omar bin Sa'ad captured Uqba bin Sam'an who was a servant of Alrabab daughter of Emro-Alqaies Alkalbeia and the mother of Sukaina daughter of Hussain. He (Omar bin Sa'ad) asked him: who are you? He said: I am a slave. Then he was released and no one made it except him (12).
This proof Uqba bin Sam'an was an eyewitness who was in the action since the beginning to the end. And he narrated many events which happened weather on the way to Karbala, in Karbala, before and after the battle. He was in a position allowed him to witness every detail of what being happened and being said. And so normally this person witness holds a great position in history facts.
Uqba bi Sam'an confirmed the falseness of their misgiving that Alhussain PBUH asked Omar Bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) to let him go to Yazeed and put his hand on his hand, or to let him go to a hot borderline to fight until death. Altubari said: Uqba bin Sam'an said: I accompanied Hussain and left Almadina with Him towards Mecca and from Mecca to Iraq; I never separated from him until he was killed. No speech he made with people even a word in Almadina nor Mecca or in the way nor in Iraq or in a camping until the day he was killed could not hear it (heard every word he said). I swear by Allah he did not give them what people says and assumes about that he put his hand on the hands of Yazeed bin Muaweiah or to take him to an Islamic borderline but he said "let me go in this big earth to see what will happen with this people" (13).
Ibn Alatheir said: Uqba bin Sam'an said: I accompanied Alhussain from Almadina to Mecca and from Mecca to Iraq and didn’t separate from him until he was killed. I also heard all his speeches to people until the day he was killed. I swear by Allah he did not give them what people says and assumes about that he put his hand on the hands of Yazeed bin Muaweiah or to take him to an Islamic borderline but he said "let me go in this big earth to see what will happen with this people" and they refused (14).
Ibn Katheer said: Uqba bin Sam'an said: I accompanied Hussain to Mecca until he was killed. I swear by Allah he did not say a word without hearing it in everywhere he goes. Also he did not ask to go to Yazeed and put his hand o his hand or to go to one of the borderlines but he asked for one of two; to let him go to where he came from or, to let him go in this wide earth to see what will happen with people. (15)
Another historic document confirms the earlier witness of Uqba bin Sam'an. In the letter of Omar bin Sa'ad (May Allah curse him) to Obeid-o-allah bin Zeiad (May Allah curse him) telling him about his meeting with Imam Hussain AS and mentions what happened between them. And there is nothing in the letter about the demands of Imam Hussain AS ; to take him to Yazeid to put his hand on his hand or to send him to the border line to fight Aldailam or Turks until he get killed as they assumed.
Altubari said: Hasan bin faed bin baker Al'absi said: I pear witness the letter of Omar bin Sa'ad to Obeid-o-allah bin Zeiad when I was with him it says 'In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. I am (writing this from) where I have positioned myself, near al Hussain, and I have asked him what brought him and what he wants.'
And he AS replied "The people of this land wrote to me and their messengers came to me asking me to come and I have done so. However if (now) they have some to dislike me and (the position) now appears different to them from what their messengers brought to me, I will go away from them."
When he finished reading the letter to Ibn Zeiad he recited (poem):
Now when our claws cling to him, he hopes for escape
but he will be prevented (now) from (getting) any refuge.(16)
In another text Altubari said: Omar called after Qurrah bin Qais Alhanthali and told him: Woe to you Qurrah! Go to Hussain and ask him what brought him to here and what he wants? He said: Qurrah bin Qais came to him and when Alhussain saw him coming he said (to his companions): Do you know this person? Habib bin Mothaher said: "Yes," replied Habib bin Mothahir, "he is from the Hanthala clan of Tamim. He is the son of our sister. I used to know him as a man of sound judgment. I would not have thought that he would be present at this scene." He said: then he came and greeted Hussain AS and gave him the letter of Omar bin Sa'ad to him then Hussain AS said: The people of this town of yours wrote to me that I should come However, if now you have come to dislike me, then I will leave you (17).
What is the truth about the demands which Imam Hussain AS requested for?
Through the tracking of historical texts about this issue I found out that Imam Hussain AS had six demands. 3 of them were before the battle when he was under siege of the infidel army of him, his family, and companions' peace be upon them all. And another 3 demands were during the battle.
The once before the battle 2 of them mentioned in the narration of Uqba bin Sam'an earlier which started: to let him go to where he came from or, to let him go in this wide earth to see what will happen with people. (18)
The third demands is his invitation AS to Omar bin Sa'ad to stop his hatred and enmity against the Householders AS and to change his loyalty and attitude from the falsehood and its party to the righthood and its party. Also he warned him of bad consequences which he will get, if he continues the same.
Alamah Almajlesi RH narrated this demand in a story which stated: Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) sent a messenger to Omar Bin Sa'ad saying: "I want to have a talk with you, meet me tonight in the land between my camp and yours!"
Omar Bin Sa'ad went out with twenty of his knights. Yet, Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) came also surrounded with the same number of knights.
When they met, Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) ordered his companions to stay away and they obeyed him. Only his brother, Al-Abbass (peace be upon him) and his son Ali Alakbar (peace be upon him) stayed with him. Then Omar ordered his men to stay away, while keeping with him his son Hafs and his servant Laheq.
Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) then said: "Woe to you Ibn Sa'ad! Don’t you fear Allah, to whom you’ll return, for fighting against me, while you know, whose son I am, from the kinship to Allah’s Prophet (peace be upon him and his household)? Leave those people and be by my side, I shall shorten distances for you to be near Allah the Almighty."
Omar Bin Sa'ad said: "Aba-Abdullah! –I fear for my house to be destroyed." The Imam (peace be upon him) replied: "I shall build it for you!" But Ibn Sa'ad said: "I’m afraid my village shall be occupied by force!" And the Imam (peace be upon him) said: "I shall give you a better one, out of what I own in Heijaz!" Ibn Sa'ad replied: "I have a family that I worry and fear about! The Imam (peace be upon him) told him: "I shall guarantee their safety".
Here, Omar didn’t say a single word any more, accordingly; the Imam (peace be upon him) left him behind and was saying: What's wrong with you? May Allah slaughter you on your bed soon, and not forgive you on judgment day. I swear to Allah I wish you not let you eat from the grist of Iraq only few. Then Ibn Sa'ad said sarcastically: 'barley more adequacy than grist'. (19)
His demands AS during the battle
Sheikh Abd-Alathem Almohtadi Albahrani narrated: (when he AS came to Omar bin Sa'ad he said: I will give you the choice of three demands. He said: what are they? He said: to let me get back to Almadina to the shrine of my grandfather the messenger of Allah. He said: I it is out of my hand. He said: Pour me a sniff of water my liver is dry of thirst. He said: even the second I its out of my hand. He said: if I should be killed then let them face me man by man. He said: I will get you that. Then he attacked people…) (20)
Let the loyal faithful see the truth is being falsified, how the constants are changed, and the oppression of Umayyad and their supporters, their followers and companions until today. They did not get enough with killing Imam Hussain AS, captivity of his harem from a country to another and the extermination of his descendants in that horrible day but also they tried boldly to questioning his objectives, the justifications of his revolution and his constants thinking that this falsification will not be revealed and people will not know their plans which is still being hatched and running until today.
1. Alkamel fe Altarekh by Ibn Katheer: V4, Page 55
2. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 312-313
3. Bihar Alanwar by Almajlesi: V44, Page 388-389
4. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 312-313
5. Albedaia wa Alnehaia By Ibn Katheer: V8 Page 189
6. Alkamel fe Altarekh by Ibn Katheer: V4, Page 54
7. Aljawhara fe nasab Alimam Ali wa Aleh by Albari: Page 43
8. He meant by his brother Muslim bin Aqiel AS
9. Seiar A'lam Alnubala by Althahabi: V3, Page 302
10. Albedaia wa Alnehaia By Ibn Kathir: V7 Page 313
11. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 312-313
12. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 347
13. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 313
14. Alkamel fe Altarekh: V4, Page 54-55
15. Albedaia wa Alnehaia By Ibn Kathir: V8 Page 189-190
16. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 311
17. Tarekh Altubari: V4, Page 311
18. as mentioned earlier in 13-14-15
19. Behar Alanwar by Almajlesi: V44, Page 388-389
20. Men Akhlaq AlImam Alhussain AS by Abd Alathem Almohtadi Albahrani Page 253-254 narrated from Asrar Alshahada: Page 409 and Almuntakhab by Alturaihi: Page 439